Waterfall Methodology in Project Management

How to plan & implement every phase of the waterfall model.

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What is Waterfall Methodology?

Waterfall methodology is a linear project management approach, where stakeholder and customer requirements are gathered at the beginning of the project, and then a sequential project plan is created to accommodate those requirements. The waterfall approach was first conceived by Winston W. Royce in 1970, and it was quickly adopted in a variety of industries due to its logical sequencing and ease of implementation.

Some of the industries that regularly use the waterfall method include construction, IT and software development. However, the term “waterfall” is usually used in a software context, so the rest of this post will concern the waterfall model as it pertains to software development.

The Phases of the Waterfall Model

The waterfall model is a project management methodology that has at least five to seven phases that follow in strict linear order, where a phase can’t begin until the previous phase has been completed. The specific names of the phases vary, but they were originally defined by Royce in the following way:

  • Requirements: The key aspect of waterfall is that all customer requirements are gathered at the beginning of the project, allowing every other phase to be planned without further customer involvement until the product is complete. It is assumed that all requirements can be gathered at this phase.
  • Design: The design phase is best broken up into logical design and physical design subphases. The logical design subphase is when possible solutions are brainstormed and theorized. The physical design subphase is when those theoretical ideas and schemas are made into concrete specifications.
  • Implementation: The implementation phase is when programmers assimilate the requirements and specifications from the previous phases and produce actual code.
  • Verification: This phase is when the customer reviews the product to make sure that it meets the requirements laid out at the beginning of the project. This is done by releasing a completed product to the customer.
  • Maintenance: The customer is regularly using the product during the maintenance phase, discovering bugs, inadequate features and other errors that occurred during production. The production team applies these fixes as necessary until the customer is satisfied.

Waterfall vs. Agile

It can be easier to understand waterfall when you compare it to another software development process called Agile. Waterfall and Agile are two very different project management methodologies, but both are equally valid depending on the context of the project.

Waterfall Project Management

If the waterfall model is to be executed formally, each the above phases have to executed in a linear fashion. Meaning, each phase has to be completed before the next phase can begin, and phases are never repeated, unless there is a massive failure that comes to light in the verification or maintenance phase.

Furthermore, each phase is discrete and pretty much exists in isolation. This is especially true with the requirements phase. Once the customer’s requirements are collected, the customers cease to play any role in the actual development of the software.

Agile Project Management

Agile differs greatly in these two areas, linear action and customer involvement. Agile is a nimble, iterative process where the product is delivered in stages to the customer for feedback and review.

Instead of having everything planned out by milestones, such as in waterfall, agile operates in “sprints” where prioritized tasks are completed in a short window, like 2-weeks. These prioritized tasks are fluid and appear based on the success of previous sprints and customer feedback, rather than having all tasks prioritized at the onset in the requirements phase, like in waterfall.

Understanding the Difference Between Waterfall & Agile

Just remember that waterfall is a linear plan. Everything is mapped out ahead of time and customers interact only at the beginning and at the end of the project. Agile, on the other hand, is an iterative process, where new priorities and requirements are injected into the project after sprints and customer feedback sessions.

 

Waterfall Planning Software

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Pros & Cons of Waterfall Methodology

There are several reasons why managers choose to use the waterfall project management methodology. Here are some benefits:

  • Because project requirements are agreed upon in the first phase, planning and scheduling is simple and clear.
  • With a fully laid out project schedule, you can give accurate estimates for your project costs, resources and deadlines.
  • It’s easy to measure progress as you move through the phases and hit milestones.
  • Customers aren’t perpetually adding new requirements to the project, delaying production.

Of course, there are drawbacks to using the waterfall method as well. Here are some disadvantages to this approach:

  • It can be difficult for customers to articulate all of their needs at the beginning of the project.
  • If the customer is dissatisfied with the product in the verification phase, it can be very costly to go back and design the code again.
  • A linear project plan is rigid and lacks flexibility for adapting to unexpected events.

Although it has its drawbacks, a waterfall project management plan is very effective in situations where you are encountering a familiar scenario with several knowns, or in situations where your customer knows exactly what they want at the onset.

Using ProjectManager.com for Waterfall Project Management

With Gantt charts, templates, task lists, reporting tools and more, ProjectManager.com has the best features for planning and executing a waterfall project.

Plan the Steps

The Gantt chart is easily the most important tool for waterfall project management. Use our interactive online Gantt chart software to create a timeline of all the tasks and phases in your waterfall project. You can assign tasks to team members and create dependencies between tasks. Dependencies are great in a waterfall setting because they ensure that phases and tasks are completed in sequential order.

Waterfall Gantt Chart

Collect Requirements & Other Documentation

ProjectManager.com offers unlimited online file storage, so you can upload all of your requirements documents in one central location where the entire team can gain access. Plus, attach documents like specifications and requirements to tasks on our Gantt chart, so the documentation always stays with the relevant task.

Waterfall Online File Storage

Track Progress Through Each Phase

See how close you are to your next milestone with automatic task bar shading on our Gantt chart. For even more detail, use our real-time dashboards that track more than just tasks. Monitor your team workload, your project expenses and planned vs. actual progress with easy-to-read graphs.

Waterfall Track Progress

Duplicate Plans with Templates & Imported Files

With Projectmanager.com, you can create templates to quickly plan any recurring waterfall projects. If you know exactly what it takes to get the project done, then make it into a template! Plus, you can import proven project plans from MSP, and task lists from Excel and Word.

import project plans

Waterfall Project Management Software

Now that you know how to plan a waterfall project, give yourself the best tools for the job. Take a free 30-day trial and see how ProjectManager.com can help you plan with precision, track with accuracy and deliver your projects on time and under budget.

 

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